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Recent Submissions

Training on Dissertation Submissions
(Uganda Christian University, 2024-04-25) Kirya Kenneth
Socio-Economic Effects of Oil Exploration in Uganda: A Case Study of Buliisa District Western Uganda
(Uganda Christian University, 2024-04-19) Enosi Nyakairu
This study investigates the socio-economic effects of oil exploration in Buliisa District, Western Uganda. Employing a cross-sectional survey design with both quantitative and qualitative approaches, the research explores the impact of oil exploration on infrastructure development and employment opportunities within the district. The study population comprised municipality administrators, oil companies’ officials, area residents, local councils, and politicians. Using a sample size of 234 respondents, including area residents, local councils, oil company officials, municipality administrators, and politicians, data was collected and analyzed to draw meaningful insights. Results indicate a strong positive relationship between environmental effects and oil exploitation staff, suggesting an increase in staff involvement with rising environmental effects. However, a very weak positive correlation is observed between infrastructural development and oil exploitation, indicating limited impact of infrastructure on the success of oil projects. The findings also reveal a significant positive correlation between employment opportunities and oil exploitation, implying that increased opportunities in the industry enhance employment likelihood. Based on the conclusions drawn, practical recommendations are proposed. These include prioritizing environmental management practices to mitigate negative impacts, diversifying economic investments to reduce dependency on the oil sector, and implementing inclusive employment policies to ensure equitable access to job opportunities. These findings offer valuable insights for stakeholders aiming to enhance the socio-economic impact of oil exploration on Buliisa District and underscore the need for holistic strategies to maximize benefits while mitigating potential risks.
Assessing Post COVID-19 Competition and Profitability in the Ugandan Downstream Oil Sector a Case Study of Stabex Petrol Stations in Kampala District
(Uganda Christian University, 2024-04-19) Feta Benon Obaya
The purpose of this study was to assess the post Covid19 pandemic competition and profitability of Uganda’s downstream oil sector with a case study of Stabex International Ltd in Kampala district. The study was guided by three objectives which were; to analyze the current competitive landscape of the downstream oil sector in Uganda, to evaluate the impact of competition on profitability margins for companies within this sector and to identify the key drivers of competition and their effects on operational efficiency and market share distribution among downstream oil companies in Uganda. The study assessed a population of 35 from which a sample of 32 respondents were gotten. The cross-sectional design was used because cross-sectional studies are generally quick, easy, and cheap to conduct because limited time is spent in the field. With the cross-sectional design, the researcher was able to collect appropriate data quickly and cheaply. Closed ended questionnaires were utilized to collect data and analyzed using SPSS in form of percentages. The findings showed that a large majority agreed that there was a rise in the competition levels after restrictions due to the pandemic were scrapped allowing free operation of businesses. The findings showed that there increasing entry of new firms in the sector which opened roon for huge competition with reduced profits. The findings also showed that the market share was in equivalently divided the major dominants like TOTALEnergies and VIVO Energy taking the biggest market share leaving multiple players to compete in the smaller niches in the market. . The study recommends Stabex International Ltd and other petrol retailers should consistently provide high service levels to keep loyal customers and also ensure that monthly customer satisfaction surveys are conducted and the government should consider reducing on the petrol retailing taxes to keep them operative and reduce on their closure due to the high operational costs. Like any other research, this research is not exhaustive and therefore, further research is needed to research whether the results hold for other fuel stations in other Cities and districts. Other fuel stations might have similarities and therefore this research could also be applied in those fuel stations.
An Assessment on the Impact of Oil and Gas Exploration Activities in the Albertine Graben
(Uganda Christian University, 2024-04-19) Immaculate Atugonza
This research is about “An assessment on the impact of Oil and Gas exploration activities in the Albertine Graben”. Chapter 1 includes the background of the study, problem statement, objectives of the study; to examine the oil and gas exploration activities in Buliisa district, to identify the negative effects of oil and gas exploration activities on the standard of living in Buliisa district and to evaluate the negative effects of surveying on the surrounding communities of Buliisa district, research questions, purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study and the conceptual framework. Chapter 2 is about the contextual background and reviewing of all the specific objectives. Chapter 3 is about the methodology employed that is the research design, area of study, the study population, sample size, the sample technique, methods and instruments of data collection, primary data, questionnaires and analyzing of data. A descriptive research design was adopted to realize the study objectives, using both quantitative and qualitative approaches and a questionnaire as an instrument of data collection. The research findings revealed that Oil and Gas exploration activities have greatly had a negative impact on the standard of living of the people in Buliisa district and the surrounding communities. Some people in Buliisa district have regretted the existence of oil and gas in their area because they perceive it as a curse. Recommendations in the report include; the government must educate people on how to appreciate the natural resource as a blessing through sensitization, monitoring and engagement of the local people. The government should exercise transparency in property or land valuation when compensating the affected persons, enhance and implement mitigation measures to save the main forms of livelihoods and ensure simplicity in relevant legislations are simple and available in local languages. In addition the research would help the concerned bodies like Uganda Land Alliance, Petroleum Authority of Uganda and National Environmental Management Authority in addressing Oil and Gas exploration issues earlier before their occurrence.
Assessing the Use of Alkali-Activated Steel Slag in the Removal of Heavy Metal Ions From Wastewater
(2024-04-17) Phinehas Okiror
The release of wastewater containing heavy metals into the environment poses a huge threat to human health and the aquatic environment at large. In order to remove heavy metals from wastewater, adsorption methods are commonly utilized. This study investigated the effectiveness of alkali-activated steel slag in the removal of removal of heavy metals from wastewater. The research involved the characterization of wastewater samples to identify target heavy metals and their initial concentrations, steel slag characterization, alkali activation of the steel slag and the determination of the maximum adsorption capacity through batch adsorption experiments. The mean heavy metal concentrations determined were 0.43 𝑚𝑔/𝑙 for Lead (Pb) and 0.01 𝑚𝑔/𝑙 for Copper (Cu). XRF analysis of the steel slag showed it was made up of several oxides with Silicon Dioxide having the largest percentage. The maximum adsorption capacity determined was 78.99𝑚𝑔/𝑔. Based on the determined adsorption capacity, breakthrough curve data, and desired flow rate, a fixed-bed adsorption tank was designed to optimize the removal of heavy metals from wastewater streams on a larger scale. This research demonstrated the potential of activated steel slag as a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for heavy metal removal from wastewater.
Assessing the Use of Activated Carbon to Increase Biogas Production
(2024-04-15) Faith Wanadi Angeango
The enhancement of biogas production, specifically methane enrichment is critical for improving the efficiency and viability of biogas as a renewable energy source. This report examines the role of activated carbon in increasing methane yield and the quantity of biogas produced in a digester at NALIRRI by the Direct interspecies electron transfer Process (DIET). Activated carbon known for its high surface area, electrical conductivity and porosity provides a conducive environment for the adsorption of inhibitory compounds and the DIET process. Furthermore, it facilitates a more stable and enhanced microbial activity leading to increased biodegradation and methane production. Experimental setups incorporating various concentrations of activated carbon were monitored and analyzed. Parameters like pH, temperature and organic loading rate were monitored alongside the addition of activated carbon to maximize methane output. The results indicate a significant increase in methane production with the addition of activated carbon and it can contribute to the development of a cost-effective and sustainable method to increase the quantity of biogas produced in a bio-digester hence a promising approach to enhance biogas production with implications for renewable energy and waste management practices. This report concludes with recommendations for further research and application of biogas on systems.
Investigating the Use of Waste Cooking Oil in Production of Biodiesel as a Supplement to Petroleum Fuels in Kampala District, Uganda
(2024-04-15) Fahad Paul Kirumira
This research explored the potential of waste cooking oil (WCO) for biodiesel production in Kampala, Uganda in search for a potential supplement to the petroleum fuels. The research aimed to attain this biodiesel as low cost fuel that will be blended with petroleum diesel in order to mitigate the high fuel prices. The research investigated factors influencing the viability of Waste cooking oil-based biodiesel production in Kampala, such as Waste cooking oil availability, collection methods. It also covered the biodiesel production process and the financial impact of the biodiesel compared to traditional diesel. Finally, the research was able to conclude Waste cooking oil-based biodiesel as viable supplement to petroleum diesel due to the compatibility in the engine performance and an overall price reduction in fuel price by 4% per litre.
Investigating the Use of Rice Husk Ash to Improve the Dewatering Performance in the Sludge Drying Beds
(2024-04-15) Chelsea Murungi
Lubigi faecal and waste water treatment plant in Namugoona, Uganda adopted the non-conventional technology for treatment which possess a unique characteristic for the treatment system. In spite of the system’s capacity to manage human excreta from both onsite and offsite sanitation systems, there is a high solid loading due to the incoming large volumes of wastes beyond the design capacity and an addition long drying period for the sludge thus limited sludge drying beds thus need for optimum utilization of the drying beds. The research project was investigating the use of rice husk ash to improve the dewatering performance of sludge in the sludge drying beds. Varying proportions of rice husk ash 0%, 4%, 7% and 10% of the sludge weight (30kgs) were mixed with sludge to monitor dewatering effectiveness after every seven days. The key parameters monitored were moisture content, total solids and volatile solids expressed in percentage (%) during both the dry and wet season in order to assess the effect of seasonal variation. During the wet and dry season, sludge with 0% (no Rice husk ash added) had the highest moisture content of 70.9% and 57.2% respectively, 4% dose had the lowest moisture content of 35.4% and 27.3% respectively and 10% dose had the lowest volatile solids of 21.4% and 22.3% respectively after 28days. The moisture content obtained for each season was within the recommended range of (30-40) % for sludge to be removed. Therefore, 4% dose of rice husk ash had the best dewatering performance in comparison to 0%, 7% and 10% and hence was the optimum dosage.
Treatment of Industrial Effluent Using Zeolites: A Case Study of Biyinzika Poultry Slaughterhouse
(2024-04-15) Bushendich Judah Kwemoi
In order to ensure environmental protection, wastewater requires treatment before it is discharged into the environment. This research looks to improve the quality of industrial effluent through treatment using natural zeolites. Samples were collected from Biyinzika poultry slaughterhouse and tests were carried out on them. Preliminary tests indicated high COD, BOD, Turbidity, TN and TP values in comparison to the national standards. The high BOD and COD values were attributed to the high organic loading of the effluent from the plant. This therefore meant that secondary treatment was required aside from the existing wastewater treatment system. The main objective of this research and the design were achieved. The design consists of a secondary treatment system comprising of zeolites located after the initial treatment processes. This will ensure that the effluent is treated to the required standards before discharge. The use of natural zeolites increased the efficiency of the treatment process. There was a high percentage reduction in all quality i.e. maximum turbidity, BOD, COD, TN and TP with percentage reductions of 75.7%, 81.3%, 90.8%, 64.2% and 89% respectively. All the quality were also treated to the required standards for discharge therefore implying the main objective the research was achieved.
Investigating the Use of Calcined Dolomite to Stabilize Expansive Soils
(2024-04-15) Ronald Byishimo
Soils which possess high amounts of clay content are more susceptible to shrink and swell behaviors due to varying moisture contents. This makes it hard for such soils to be suitable for engineering structures to be constructed on them for example roads, foundations and buildings. For a long time, soil stabilization has been used as a technique to modify such soils in order to change their properties so that they can favor construction of different structures. Cement and lime have been the most common stabilizers that aid chemical stabilization of soil. However, these two are so much competitive on market hence necessary to find other alternative materials that can perform the same purpose of stabilizing soil. This study explored using calcined dolomite to improve expansive soil. Various lab tests like sieve analysis, hydrometer tests, plasticity tests, compaction tests, strength tests, and swelling tests were performed. The untreated soil was a highly plastic clay of PI 38.9 and LL 61% and therefore unsuitable for subgrade road construction. The soil was mixed with different amounts of calcined dolomite (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%). A 10% mix showed the best results, significantly reducing fine particles and plasticity that is from a PI of 38.9% to 12.2%. While density increased slightly, water content also decreased. Importantly, swelling and shrinkage of the soil were greatly reduced. Strength also increased considerably as CBR increased from 6.4% to 31.7%. These findings suggest calcined dolomite could be a promising and effective method for stabilizing expansive soils.
Investigating the Use of Lime Kiln Dust as a Filler in Asphalt Concrete for Durable Flexible Pavements
(2024-04-08) Steven Kisitu
Primarily utilized in Uganda, flexible pavements are made of bitumen, aggregates, and mineral filler. Investigating the use of lime kiln dust as a mineral filler in asphalt concrete for long-lasting flexible pavements in proportions by mass of the active filler of 4% was the primary goal of this study. The Marshall test, determining the engineering parameters of bitumen, aggregates, and mineral filler, as well as measuring the asphalt mixtures' indirect tensile strength (ITS), were the primary techniques employed. For each mix, a number of factors need to be ascertained, including Marshall stability, flow, unit weight, air voids (Va), voids filled with asphalt (VFA), and voids in the mineral aggregate (VMA). Air voids decreased from 5.7% to 4.9%, Marshall stability increased from 14.8 to 17.1%, and indirect tensile strength wet strength increased from 81% to 90% as a result of using lime kiln dust. Findings suggested that adding 4% of lime kiln dust filler increased the stability and stiffness of asphalt mixtures, enhancing their resistance to rutting; however, experiments utilising different percentages of lime kiln dust should be experimented. Accordingly, this study demonstrates that 4% lime kiln dust can be added to asphalt concrete as a mineral filler to decrease air voids, increase mix stability, and eventually strengthen the asphalt mixture's rigidity and durability.
Investigating the Use of Crushed Granite Stone and Incinerated Waste Ash in the Stabilization of Expansive Soils
(2024-03-16) Andrew Tusubira
Crushed granite stone is produced in large amounts during the cutting and processing of granite rocks at manufacturing factories. Thus, an attempt has been made here to define the role of crushed granite in enhancing the geotechnical behaviour of expansive soil in order to make it suitable for construction. In addition, this study aims to assess the use of granite stone and incinerated waste ash to stabilize expansive soils for subgrade. On natural and stabilized expansive soils using a constant portion of crushed granite as 30% with an increment of incinerated waste ash portion with a varying range from 2% to 8%, extensive geotechnical tests such as Atterberg limits, compaction characteristics, California bearing ratio (CBR), and swelling percentage have been carried out. The outcomes demonstrated that crushed granite stone is a useful tool for controlling swelling behaviour and enhancing soil plasticity. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that CBR rises when incinerated waste ash content increases and that this increase peaks at 6% with a maintained 30% of crushed granite stone before declining. Therefore, this sum might be considered the ideal value of incinerated waste ash and crushed granite stone respectively.
Investigating the Use of Crushed Granite Stone and Ash From Waste Incineration to Stabilize Expansive Subgrade Soil
(2024-04-15) Peter Ashaba
Expansive soils pose significant challenges in civil engineering projects due to their high plasticity index (PI) and low California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values, often failing to meet standard requirements. This study investigates the effectiveness of locally available materials, crushed granite stone (CGS), and waste incineration ash (WIA), in stabilizing expansive soils in Kawanda Town Council, Wakiso District. Initial soil tests revealed unsatisfactory CBR and PI values. Subsequent addition of 30% CGS resulted in a notable increase in CBR values, meeting Ministry of Works and Transport (MoWT) standards. However, the PI value remained above the permissible limit at 26.2%. To further enhance soil stabilization, varying percentages of WIA (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) were introduced while maintaining the 30% CGS ratio. The results demonstrated a decrease in PI values with increasing WIA content, reaching a minimum of 22.3% at 8% WIA. Optimization analysis revealed that a combination of 30% CGS and 8% WIA yielded the most favourable outcomes, achieving optimal values for CBR, Maximum Dry Density (MDD) and Optimum Moisture Content (OMC), Plasticity Index (PI), and Liquid Limit (LL). This finding underscores the efficacy of using locally available materials for stabilizing expansive soils, offering a sustainable solution for civil engineering projects in the region.
Investigating the Use of Acrylic and Fiberglass Composite for Packaging of Biogas in Institutions of Learning in Mukono Municipality
(2024-04-15) Alden Job Openjtho
This report presents the development of an innovative bio-gas storage solution using a composite material blend of acrylic and fiberglass, designed to address the limitations of traditional storage methods in institutional settings. The project encompasses a comprehensive study that begins with the analysis of the chemical composition of bio-gas produced in institutions in Mukono Municipality, guiding the design criteria, for the storage cylinder. Utilizing Computer-aided design and finite element analysis, the cylinder meticulously designed to withstand internal pressures and operational demands, ensuring both safety and efficiency. The fabrication process highlighted the practical application of composite materials, demonstrating their suitability for bio-gas storage through a blend of durability, cost-effectiveness, and environmental consideration. A cost-benefit analysis underscored the economic viability of the composite cylinder, positioning it as a superior alternative to existing and steel options by balancing initial investment with operational longevity and maintenance requirements. The findings contribute valuable insights into the application of composite materials in renewable energy storage, proposing a scalable, sustainable solution for bio-gas management that aligns with global energy sustainability goals. The report culminates the recommendations for further research and development, suggesting pathways to optimize design and fabrication processes, enhance operational efficiencies, and expand the adoption of composite bio-gas cylinders in diverse contexts.
Assessing the Use of Activated Carbon to Increase Biogas Production
(2024-04-15) Sandra Namulumba
This research focuses on the need to increase the quantity of biogas produced in a bio-digester considering the required conditions like temperature ph, the feeding rate are all met according to the given standards. This study aims to assess the use of activated carbon to increase the quantity of biogas produced at the National Livestock Resources Research Institute biogas plant while using the same amount feedstock. The results from this study indicated an increase in methane production and decrease in carbon-dioxide in the bio-digester through the Direct Interspecies Electron Transfer Diet (DIET) process while using abiotic conductive materials like activated charcoal. The results of study contribute to the development of a cost-effective and sustainable method for increasing the quantity of biogas.
Investigating the Use of Rice Husk Ash to Improve the Dewatering Performance in the Sludge Drying Beds at Lubigi
(2024-04-15) Julius Kato
Sludge from onsite sanitation systems is called feces, and it is not dumped into a sewer. One of the management issues in Sub-Saharan Africa's heavily crowded urban slums is Faecal sludge. The high cost of emptying, the high density of dwelling units, and the long haulage routes to the treatment plants make it expensive to collect and transport Faecal sludge from slums to treatment facilities. The slum dwellers have adopted the use of additives that are marketed under the premise of being able to reduce volume of Faecal Sludge, odor emanating from it and the flies. As per the analysis, Faecal Sludge contains over 90 % water, dewatering it presents an important step for resource recovery (Shukla, A review on generation, characterization, containment, transport and treatment of fecal sludge and septage with resource recovery-oriented sanitation, 2023). This study aimed at investigating the use of rice husks ash to improve the dewatering performance in the sludge drying beds. The Lubigi Faecal sludge and Treatment Plant was considered as our area of study. The ability of the drying beds to dewater the faecal sludge was assessed by the determination of the Moisture Content and Total Solids of the faecal sludge and these were measured in terms of percentages.
Exploring the Use of Pineapple Peel Biosorbent in the Treatment of Namilyango Lagoon Effluent
(2024-04-15) Edwin Alyosha Ssekyondwa
This study addresses wastewater management by exploring the innovative use of pineapple peel biosorbents for the treatment of effluent from the Namilyango Lagoon in Mukono. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of pineapple peel biosorbents in reducing Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and turbidity in the lagoon's effluent, thereby aligning with the discharge standards set by the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA). The methodology encompassed the preparation of the biosorbents through chemical activation using sodium hydroxide to enhance their adsorptive properties. Subsequent experimental treatments involved the application of these biosorbents to the lagoon effluent at various dosages, followed by rigorous physico-chemical analysis to quantify reductions in BOD, TSS, and turbidity. The study systematically determined the optimal dosage of biosorbents necessary to achieve compliance with environmental discharge standards. Findings from the research demonstrated significant reductions in all targeted effluent parameters, with the optimal biosorbent dosage identified at 250 mg/L. This dosage effectively reduced BOD, TSS, and turbidity levels to within NEMA's regulatory limits, showcasing the pineapple peel biosorbents' potential as a viable alternative to conventional wastewater treatment methods. The study further highlights the dual benefits of this approach: mitigating environmental pollution and repurposing agricultural waste, thus contributing to the circular economy. The implications of this research are far-reaching, offering a scalable, environmentally friendly solution to wastewater management challenges in Uganda and similar contexts worldwide. It bridges the gap between agricultural waste management and environmental engineering, providing a template for future innovations in sustainable wastewater treatment.
Investigating the Use of Linear Low-Density Polyethylene in Modifying Bitumen to Improve the Performance of Flexible Pavements Along Climbing Lanes
(2024-04-16) Derrick Adriko
This study examined the concept of bitumen modification to improve the performance of flexible pavements against rutting on climbing lanes. Such sections are subjected to slow moving heavy traffic and prolonged loading time hence categorized as severely loaded sections. As pavement temperatures rise, the asphalt binder softens and is unable to withstand the loads, leading to deformation. A case study along Bweyogerere – Jinja road climbing lane revealed premature deterioration in form of instability rutting in the asphalt layer. Using mechanistic and empirical approaches, aggregates and bitumen were evaluated to understand the failure. While aggregates showed good performance, the bitumen susceptible to temperature variations which reduced stiffness at high temperatures. Modifying bitumen with 2% LLDPE reduced the temperature susceptibility and increased the stiffness modulus which showed improved resistance to permanent deformation without compromising durability of the asphalt mixture as portrayed from Marshall test results. The modified specimens exhibited a 16.7% increase in tensile strength and a 42% increase in air voids at refusal density signifying increased flexibility under heavy loads and extending service life thereby addressing premature deformation issues at the road section.
Treatment of Industrial Effluent Using Zeolites a Case Study of Biyinzika Poultry Slaughterhouse
(2024-04-16) Daniell Wabbi
To ensure environmental protection, wastewater must be treated before being released into the environment. This study focuses on enhancing the quality of industrial effluent using natural zeolites. Samples were obtained from the Biyinzika poultry slaughterhouse and subjected to testing. Initial tests revealed significantly high levels of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), turbidity, Total Nitrogen (TN), and Total Phosphorus (TP) compared to national standards, indicating the need for secondary treatment in addition to the existing wastewater treatment system due to the high organic content of the effluent. The primary goal and design of this research were achieved, which involved implementing a secondary treatment system with zeolites following the initial treatment processes to ensure the effluent meets required standards before discharge. The use of natural zeolites improved treatment efficiency, resulting in substantial reductions in turbidity, BOD, COD, TN, and TP by 75.7%, 81.3%, 90.8%, 64.2%, and 89%, respectively. These reductions ensured that all parameters met the required discharge standards, confirming the successful completion of the research objectives.
Investigating the Performance of Papyrus Ash in Concrete to Reduce Defects Caused Due to Carbonation
(2024-04-16) Philip Ajutu
Reinforced concrete structures are susceptible to a process called carbonation. This occurs when carbon dioxide from the atmosphere reacts with the calcium hydroxide in the concrete, gradually lowering its pH and compromising the protective oxide layer around the steel reinforcement. The papyrus ash used in this study was collected from buzilanjovu wetland in Mukoko. The Physical and mechanical properties of concrete ingredient such sand and coarse aggregates were determined and these included sieve analysis, ACV, AIV, moisture content, flakiness index, specific gravity and porosity. The control mix of a cement content of 400 kg, aggregate cement ratio of 4.15, 7% of the aggregate of the aggregate was used as fine aggregate, and a water cement ratio of 0.5 was used. The percentage replacement of fine aggregates with papyrus ash varied from 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 %. Concrete cubes of sizes 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm were casted and evaluated at 7 and 28 days. Increasing the replacement of fine aggregates with papyrus ash improved compressive strength but also increased porosity in hardened concrete. Despite this, compressive strength, porosity, and permeability remained within acceptable ranges (35.9 MPa, 17%, 0.34 cm/s respectively). The optimal replacement was 10%, meeting all criteria and design strength (35.9 MPa). Future research should aim to enhance workability, strength properties, and expand the material's applicability to higher concrete classes.